In international trade, the way of trade can be divided into many categories because of the different classifications. According to the way of transporting goods, what are the classifications of international trade? "Where to go" international logistics online trading platform for everyone to explain.
Divided by means of cargo transportation: (land trade; sea trade; air trade; mail order trade)
In international cargo transportation, the most widely used is ocean transport.
At present, the volume of shipping accounts for more than 80% of the total international cargo transportation. Marine transportation is so widely used because it has the following distinct advantages over other international modes of cargo transportation:
(1) The ability to pass is large. Marine transportation can take advantage of the natural waterway extending in all directions. It is not as restricted as trains and cars, and its passage capacity is very large.
(2) Large volume of transportation. The transport capacity of marine transport vessels is far greater than that of railway transport vehicles. For example, the load capacity of a 10,000-ton ship is generally equivalent to the load capacity of 250-300 wagons.
(3) Low shipping costs. According to the scale economy, because of the large volume of transportation and the long range, the transportation cost per ton of freight is small, so the freight rate is relatively low.
Although marine transportation has the above advantages, it also has shortcomings. For example, marine transportation is greatly affected by climate and natural conditions, the flight period is not easy to be accurate, and the risk is high. In addition, the speed of ocean transportation is relatively low.
In international cargo transportation, rail transport is the main transportation mode after marine transportation. The import and export goods for marine transportation are mostly concentrated and dispersed by rail transportation.
Railway transportation has many advantages. It is generally not affected by climatic conditions. It can guarantee normal transportation throughout the year, and it has a large volume, a high speed, a high degree of continuity, and may be less risky during operation. It is simpler to handle rail freight than ocean transportation, and the consignor and consignee can check in and pick up at the nearest departure station (shipping station) and destination station.
Air transport is a modern mode of transportation. Compared with marine transportation and rail transportation, it has the advantages of fast transportation speed, high cargo quality and no restrictions on ground conditions. Therefore, it is best for transporting urgently needed supplies, fresh goods, precision instruments and valuables.
Parcelpost transport is a relatively simple method of transport. There are agreements and contracts between the postal services of various countries. Through these agreements and contracts, mail parcels of various countries can be transmitted to form an international parcel transportation network. Because international parcel transportation has the nature of international multimodal transport and “door to door” transportation, in addition, the procedures are simple and the cost is not high, so it has become one of the modes of transportation commonly used in international trade.